Molecular Genetic Analysis of Behavioral Traits
We examine the contributions of individual genes to the genetic determination of complex behavioral traits. Because brain serotonin pathways regulate many mammalian physiological and behavioral phenomena, our primary focus is on gene products that contribute to this signaling system. To shed light on the mechanisms through which serotonin regulates neurobehavioral processes such as anxiety/fear responses, ingestive behavior, and reward, we use molecular genetic procedures to generate lines of mice with null mutations (constitutive, region-specific and inducible) of serotonin receptor genes. Detailed behavioral analyses of the impact of these mutations are pursued, revealing abnormalities that provide a focus for multidisciplinary studies of the neural mechanisms underlying the regulation of complex behaviors.
In view of the widespread use of serotonergic drugs such as Prozac for the treatment of conditions such as anxiety and depression, we have an interest in examining the serotonergic regulation of such processes. Mice bearing a null mutation of the 5-HT1A receptor represent a useful model for this work. These "hyper serotonergic" animals lack the predominant inhibitory autoreceptor of serotonergic neurons, resulting in elevated extra cellular serotonin levels. Animals lacking 5-HT1A receptors display enhanced anxiety-like responses in a variety of behavioral assays and robust antidepressant-like responses in an animal model of depression. We are examining neural mechanisms through which serotonin system hyperactivity produces these abnormalities of behavior.
We are also interested in the serotonergic regulation of ingestive behavior. We have observed an eating disorder in animals bearing null mutations of the serotonin 5-HT2C receptor subtype. These animals overeat and develop a late onset ("middle-aged" obesity) syndrome associated with physiological changes characteristic of human obesities. To examine the neural basis of this disorder, we are developing sophisticated ethologically-based behavioral assays to dissect the neuropsychological processes that govern ingestive behavior in mice. Such studies are performed in conjunction with neuroanatomical, genetic and pharmacological approaches to examine neural mechanisms through which 5-HT2C receptors regulate feeding.
In addition to their role in the regulation of food ingestion, increasing attention is being paid to the influences of brain serotonin systems on the ingestion of abused drugs. The rewarding properties of abused drugs and natural reinforcers appear to share common neural pathways that are regulated by serotonin. In accord with this, we have uncovered abnormal responses of 5-HT2C and 5-HT6 receptor mutant mice to drugs such as psychostimulant and alcohol. These responses provide a focus for our efforts to examine neural mechanisms through which serotonin systems influence brain reward pathways.
Perception of Beauty
Perception of Beauty
Is beauty actually skin-deep? Throughout history, an association between outer beauty and inner beauty has been a prominent subject of poets, philosophers, and authors. Is this mindset still apparent in society today? In the past, society has had its own distinctive perception of beauty. A beautiful body is defined by the media and society as thin and flawlessly proportioned. Women have been pressured by society to fit or conform to this constricted definition of beauty and self-image. My work seeks to investigate the stemming problem of negative body image and the social effect of what is deemed beautiful. This is found both externally due to popular beauty ideals within the role of the media and, internally, due to psychological problems causing self-imposed stigmatizing behavior. This problem explores some of the origins of negative body image, furthering with how these views are internalized by society. The media as well as peer pressure are the main causes of negative body image and is the root source for which women will go through radical and extreme measures to stay thin and conform to society's beauty ideals. Dramatically impacting their health and mental state.
When viewing the facade of the infamous Barbie doll, many clearly will see a plastic, attractive representation of a youthful female with suntanned skin, blond hair, and big sapphire eyes. In general, glancing at a Barbie you would not perceive any kind of threat or negativity revolving around the meaningless 10" toy. Nevertheless, when investigating further beyond her synthetic outer surface, we see the true effects this universal trend has had on many different individuals and society in its entirety. Prior to discussing the effects that Barbie has had on our culture and society, it is important to understand what the media (propaganda) and art are, and what makes differentiates the two. The definition of Propaganda defined by T. Smith's text, Propaganda: A Pluralistic Perspective, is “a form of communication involving the sending of a message to a receiver”. Though, in my opinion, do not consider this description correctly defines the true meaning of propaganda. In most cases, propaganda is known to hold a negative undertone due to the notion that it is intended to influence, manipulate or evoke emotion, feelings or a change in perspective contained by its viewers. In comparison, Art is something that influences the viewer to critically or constructively think. Its main intention is to communicate the thoughts and feelings of the artist who designed it. Its intention is to be explored, examined and analyzed, not to be accepted without conscious thought like propaganda. In clarity, it is not to be conveyed that doll is not considered art, Barbie is most certainly a work of art. This enormously mainstream doll made of cheap plastic does not imply it is void of any kind artistic and creative background. While considering Barbie to be a creation of art, the characteristically quiet propaganda that toy conveys outdoes the art feature of the doll. Now moving forward with looking at how the symbolic system of Barbie and the Mattel product has affected our current culture.
The Barbie section in any local toy store is clearly the most prominent, noticeable and attention getting aisle of the whole store. Radiating with vivid pink wrapping and lively cartoon illustrations of Barbie smiling alongside the large distinct cursive writing making the entirety of Barbie and its packaging parallel the conventional ideas of femininity. Nearly unavoidable that a young girl child passing this aisle will without a doubt be mesmerized and drawn to the toy doll. The packaging characteristics alone of Barbie have already created a preset for the doll’s propaganda. The vibrant color selections with its dainty and playful font generate the statement that these dolls are exclusively designed for girls in addition that all females are expected to accept pink as the color of their gender. This shows that just within the packaging kids are affected because they subliminally taught that the color pink is solely for girls. Barbie is a massive brand that can be found all over the place, a worldwide presumption created around that Barbie dolls are made for girls. This all evolves into the next concern that Barbie produces for girls.
Seeing as it is assumed and understood that Barbie is created for little girls, who are still in the prime stages of self- development and learning and absorbing how the world works. The children gaze at their Barbie dolls and imagine and believe that is what a woman is supposed to resemble. To a small child, this plastic toy may well be her best friend as well as her role model but the most important issue with a little girl desiring, and wanting to resemble her Barbie doll is that Barbie’s external attributes are physically impossible. One Boston University student explains, Barbie’s neck is twice as long as the average human’s which would make it impossible to hold up her head.... Barbie’s legs are 50% longer than her arms, whereas the average woman’s legs are only 20% longer than her arms.... This displays that Barbie is an impossible proportioned doll when compared to a human, “she would not have enough body fat to menstruate (and obviously to have children)" (Boston). Numerous women undergo several dangerous surgeries to enhance the way they look with efforts to physically look like a Barbie doll. Barbie’s unfeasible physicality produces an unreasonable contrast between real women and the doll itself. Barbie’s attributes cause many problems within its consumer, not only stemming from her unrealistic body proportions but her face and hair also play the main role in how it affect children's views on how they identify with how women “should” appear.
Being that Barbie is so widely recognized and is considered to be the core essence of beauty in the Western culture, the look Barbie conveys is considered to be a staple in the overall image that is desired by women and young girls all over the world. Barbie's silky blond locks and light-blue eyes, a flawlessly bronzed skin tone and a face completed with perfectly done makeup directs girls to presume that wearing makeup will make them resemble this iconic doll, who is perceived “beautiful”. It is no surprise that the average mother will not permit their adolescent child to wear a face full of makeup; this is gearing the small child to start recognizing a woman who does wear makeup as attractive and reflects back to the original notion of beauty. This is removing the idea that a natural, no-makeup look can be appealing or beautiful.
Therefore, an obsession of beauty and attractiveness is formed, branching across societies in all over the globe. Ultimately these preconditioned thoughts can evolve into self-esteem problems. A young girl who sees a Barbie and directly relates it to an adult women who contains similar attributes such as shapely hips, developed breasts and makeup emphasized qualities, causing children to question why they do not look like that leading adolescent girls to desire to want to replicate an older more mature image by dressing and looking older to look in a way that they have been preconditioned to consider beautiful and appealing. This ultimately results in a child’s own self-esteem negatively as well as leading to greater issues involving harassment and seclusion of others.
One artist named Kyra Hicks focuses on some of the issues of Barbie’s presence and how it affects females of other races. Hicks is an African American woman who has observed and experienced directly the effects of the popular Caucasian doll. A famous art piece made by her was a quilt titled “Black Barbie Quilt” where she has repetitively stitched “Black Barbie has no name.” This is a profound and powerful statement by Hicks by suggesting that Barbie, “America’s doll” was never intended for her or others.
Unexpectedly, while writing and researching this paper a girl in one of my classes inquired about my topic. I enlightened her on what my research was pertaining to and what the effects of Barbie have on individuals and that of other races. She told me how this directly affected her as a young girl when she attended sleepover parties or birthday events, other girls always excluded her when playing with Barbie’s because they told her there weren't any dolls who looked like her because of her skin color being that she is a Native American. This is a huge flag for me personally because to know that this has happened to a girl I know personally largely demonstrations that this is not a rare occurrence or coincidence. Seeing first hand how intensely affected she was by this growing up to remember the occasions with such detail recalling the horrible feeling of rejection to this day. This doll does, in fact, have an enormously powerful effect on cultural alienation since “white” Barbie is the one that is exclusively accepted as what is to be considered customary and attractive. For anyone to experience isolation due to a toy demonstrates how powerful the brand is on society as a whole. By affecting one person I know and a famous artist it is clear to have affected others.
Barbie affects young children of other races in other ways as well. Children who grew up playing and interacting with the Caucasian toy doll will ultimately have a much more dramatic effect on their own self-confidence and self-esteem that could lead to the rejection of their ethnicity and culture. White children have can easily form prejudice opinions that beauty and attraction are correlated with Barbie tend to refuse kids of color or children that do not match their perception of what is considered attractive or normal. Leading to discrimination racism and bullying due to “America’s Doll” advertised as Caucasian. Referring back to the woman in one of my classes, she expressed how alienated and humiliated she was as a young girl for not looking a particular way. I am not saying that Mattel, Barbie’s creators, did not eventually expanded the Barbie brand and started creating other dolls of other races, but the central idea is that the other dolls sold by Mattel are not Barbie, they are not the face that is on every box, ad, commercial, they are not featured in such a way that created the Barbie brand. The original Barbie is the face of the corporation.
Barbie without a doubt affects young girls, however, the doll also indirectly affects young boys. While shifting focus from girls to boys may not usually get much consideration. Barbie has affected young boys similarly to the way it has affected girls by altering their view of what is considered attractive and desired even if it takes place in a more indirect manner. Throughout marketing and ads, boys see these dolls on the shelf in toy stores or their sisters playing with them, this is subjecting them to the same assumptions girls make. When a boy identifies with the Barbie doll clothed in skimpy apparel included with mature feminine qualities and makeup, which are the trademarked features of a Barbie doll, they absorb these ideals just like girls do and begin to alter their outlook on what is deemed acceptable for a female to look like and must be attractive at the same time. The desirable Barbie doll alters their perception and directly correlate that to beauty. When a boy comes across a female who does possess comparable characteristics as a Barbie doll this can evolve into accepting people exclusively on their looks due to their subconscious approval and acceptance of Barbie as beautiful and beings to block or fade out their acceptance of what real women look like. Stemming from such a youthful age, children first notice and create superficial conclusions based on appearance without fully comprehending why or it is wrong.
Linking this back to adolescent girls, we see that adolescent boys will be subconsciously constructing their assessments of the children around them to what they have adapted to believe is beautiful paralleling their learned image of the Barbie doll, by doing this they can possibly reject or bully others creating low self-esteem and self-confidence problems. Opinions of other people especially in the adolescent age are very important especially that of a young girl when her classmates isolate her, this develops self-rejection. Children of different races and young girls who are being isolated or out-casted can begin to reject their own self-image.
Now, looking at how Barbie’s trademark characteristics have affected both young boys and girls, we can look at society as a whole. Because children turn into adults, they also bring their values and morals with them as they grow up. Throughout their lives, because they were raised playing and recognizing Barbie as a beautiful thing, they will take those now innate perceptions with them. People, not just children, will begin making subconscious judgments of other people purely based on their appearance.
The media and propaganda are all that can change the way someone acts, behaves, their beliefs or views, crafting the infamous Barbie doll a leading candidate for being considered propaganda and a major impact on gender in society. Barbie has affected numerous cultures and society in ways that many never take the time to even acknowledge. Because of how Barbie has affected young children and society on a global scale, leading to discrimination and rejection of specific individuals grounded off their physical features and lays foundations for other races to exhibit alienation and undesirable feelings.
“Feminism has a long way to go before the idea that women of color shouldn't have to aspire to whiteness is as well-established and well-defended as the idea that women shouldn't have to aspire to have Barbie-like bodies.”
Cloud Computing is just one of the major advances in information technology. Cloud computing is an online storage medium as well as online software hosting based on the Internet. Such as a flash drive this can be considered a cloud drive. This provides the capability to save and store all your files on the Internet. Previously, individuals or organizations would store and run applications from programs stored on your physical computer or server, the cloud not only allows you to access all of your files from any location or off of any device, it also allows you to have less storage capacity on your hard drive. There are many well-known cloud drives such as Google Drive, Amazon, DropBox, Apple, Adobe Suite, Office360 (Class Discussion, Ekedahl) and many others as well as more entering the online Cloud Computing market rapidly to compete with this new market and business strategy. Information Technology is creating opportunities to maintain a competitive position in the marketplace by allowing the user or individual to access their information more conveniently which helps the workforce to be more mobile, efficient, and collaborative. This helps organizations to become more productive and will also help save on costs, improves revenue and can offer more beneficial advantages. I foresee Cloud Computing as the next big thing for individual users, small businesses, and large corporations.
Cloud computing offers a significant amount of flexibility due to the capacity that the cloud provides. Instead of upgrading your bandwidth to meet your organization's needs it is now more beneficial and economical to upgrade to a cloud server. Flexibility is such a crucial component in the ever-evolving businesses and organization realm that 65% of business professionals in an Information Week review stated “the ability to quickly meet business demands” was a central purpose to transfer to cloud computing. (Biddick) Cloud Computing is a new valuable and beneficial element in disaster recovery and security. Before Cloud Computing, major corporations relied on complex disaster recovery plans within their computers and servers, whereas now companies can rely on fast, efficient cloud-based services. (Christofferson) Issues can now be solved quicker and more reliably through a cloud server compared to that of traditional recovery plans. This also is a huge advance in security, when all of your data is stored in the cloud, all of your data and files can be opened and retrieved no matter what happens to the device itself. Accessibility is another key element of cloud computing, which allows you to work and access your files from anywhere. Providing Internet access, all individuals and employees have the advantage to easily and productively retrieve their documents which overall will promote work-life and excel in efficiency.
Cloud computing drastically increases collaboration and provides the ability to sync, share and receive documents simultaneously in a very rapid and fluent manner. Adobe contracted a study through Forrester Consulting in 2009, “Building the Future of Collaboration,” 73% of knowledge workers collaborate with people in different time zones and regions, at least, monthly.” (Systems) Using one interconnected file sharing location such as the cloud makes it more cohesive and constructive in all aspects of an overall organization. Accessing and updating data in one central location makes the files more efficient, the formatting is consistent and allows multiple people to interact with individual documents. Cloud computing increases stronger collaboration and productivity, increasing efficiency and improving an organization’s bottom-line.
During the research for this assignment, I was fortunate enough to contact and speak with Brad Christofferson, one of the developers of the Apple Cloud and former storage engineer for Netflix. Through the course of our conversations, I learned what benefits cloud computing offers and how this innovation in technology is essential to the success and progress of the global economy. There are an infinite number of possibilities that companies can combine with cloud computing making future innovations extremely exciting. We are already taking advantage of these very innovations from companies such as Amazon, Google, Rackspace, Apple, IBM, and Microsoft (Class Discussion, Ekedahl). The potential growth in cloud computing is fascinating and look forward to what could possibly develop from this technology and see the evolution of this over the next ten years.
Biddick, Michael. "Time To Think About Cloud Computing - InformationWeek." InformationWeek. N.p., 22 Oct. 2008. Web. 14 June 2014. <http://www.informationweek.com/cloud/software-as-a-service/time-to-think-about-cloud-computing/d/d-id/1073198>.
Christofferson, Brad. "Cloud Computing." Personal interview. 14 June 2014.
Ekedahl, Michael V. "Information Systems 301." Lecture. University of Nevada, Reno, Reno. 16 June 2014. Lecture.
Systems, Inc. Adobe. IT’s next Challenge: Three Key Trends in Document Collaboration and
Exchange (2011): n. pag. Adobe. Adobe® Acrobat®, 2011. Web. 13 June 2014. <http://wwwimages.adobe.com/www.adobe.com/content/dam/Adobe/en/products/acrobat/pdfs/acrobatX_it_challenge.pdf>.
Photography is a visual Language
Photography is a visual language. Many closed minded people think of language as simply words written on a page or words being spoken out loud. Language is the way something is conveyed or communicated such as literal, emotional, subliminal, ideas, thoughts or information. Photographs can communicate a particular story the very instant in time that it is taken. Photographs have incredible influence on communicating information although they also can hold incredible power in communicating misinformation. It is very important to know how to read a photograph to clearly understand the visual language. Ansel Adams is a good example of communicating language through landscape photography. Ansel Adams prints of Yosemite can converse its beauty emotionally by how beautiful the valley is and its layout particularly Half Dome. This may inspire us with the idea of someday visiting the valley or communicate conversations about the scenery. “Death of Elaine" Cameron Julia Margaret, although posed it captures and communicates the death of a loved one that may move the viewer to experience melancholy or even tears. The photograph can also convey information about how the people lived by their surroundings and how they dressed.
Eadweard Muybridge “Animal Locomotion” is an excellent example of visual language. Animal Locomotion communicates a literally and factual visual document depicting the movements of a horse while running and displaying that all four hooves come completely off the ground. This visual language scientifically shows us something the human eye could not comprehend. This is visually communicating literal facts that can provide the viewer with information and knowledge. This was not the reason he did these photographs. Eadweard Muybridge took these series of pictures with the intent to provide detailed information on the body and provide pictures of motion showing definition, shadowing, and the build of his subjects. His intent was not to convey a narrative or emotions but to give the viewer facts and to serve his continuous photographs as documents. He displays this well in the photograph of The Human Figure in Motion, the man carrying a 75-pound boulder on his head. These continuous photos of the movement were a foundation to motion pictures. Siege of Petersburg displays a Confederate artilleryman that has died and provides the brutal reality of the civil war to the viewer; the viewer may experience emotions, thoughts and gain information regarding the war through the photographs. “Necktie Workshop in a Division Street Tenement:” by Jacob Riis conveys visual language by showing the viewer child labor and a factory with harsh working conditions. This image displays literal information of children in the factory as well as conveying emotions about laws, environmental factory conditions, thoughts or even sympathy. Photography is more than just a technical art. Photography is without a doubt a visual language. Language is not just words on a sheet of paper. Language is the knowledge being transferred and can be accomplished through any of the five senses including photography as a visual language. A photo captures more than just an appearance but also the importance of what is actually happening. Photography and photographs can convey the point of view from the photographer’s perspective and how communication through a photograph can be an aesthetic experience.
Defining essentialism in photography
Essentialism in photography is the thought that everything has a necessary and fundamental nature to it, the term essentialism stemmed from idealism as well as realism. We can discover primary truths about something to find out the details that express the essential nature in the overall photograph and begin to deconstruct it. The main thought of essentialism is the ability to achieve expression by not adding unnecessary components to the piece. Essentialism, meaning essential; this means to only add what is essential/vital to the work incorporating a more traditional or back to the basics approach. It is all about having clarity and to be direct to reinforce the key concept of the overall piece. Essentialism always will convey an eloquent straightforwardness in a work of art. This does not mean that a work cannot become very involved and complex, it just means that if the work incorporated the principles of essentialism than the overall piece will have clarity, and not be confusing. The term essentialism usually is applied more to the process than to the result. There are several main ingredients that are used in the essentialism process: representation, expressionism, formalism, communication, and instrumentalism. Representation is to portray the subject in a realistic way; it needs to imitate the natural, original view. Expressionism is to convey emotion, feelings, opinion, desires, etc. Formalism is the use of color, line, shape, texture, pattern, rhythm, etc… displaying the basic art principles in the composition. These last two are not completely necessary but help in the overall composition in the presentation of the message being conveyed in the work of art. Communication of a moral/religious message, this means that displaying a meaning of right or wrong, incorporating ideas can make a message stronger and more clear to the viewer. This also applies to Instrumentalism, incorporating a life experience or social message; this promotes personal or societal values.
There are many examples of photographers incorporating essentialism into their work here are a couple that follows some basic rules of being essential. Cunningham, Imogen, Amaryllis. This photograph is very straightforward and has no extras that distract you from the main point. This photograph shows extreme representation and formalism, this composition shows high contrast and leads your eye to the use of angle. Weston, Edward, Sunny Corner in the Attic and Nude. Uses very similar techniques in depicting essentialism, very intense use of formalism and uses some representation, he also uses extreme contrast and use of diagonal lines leading the viewers’ eyes. In his photograph Nude, he displays representation and a little instrumentalism. Adams, Ansel, Waterwheel Falls, Yosemite National Park. This is also an excellent example of essentialism, it shows a clear representation of nature and the compositions contrast and structure help the flow of the photograph. Gilpin, Laura, Colorado Sand Dunes. This composition is a natural representation and has a very basic nature to it without the use of extras making the idea clear, strong, and essential.
History of Photography
History of Photography
Collaborative Chronology Timeline Research [1952-1957]
Edward S. Curtis, portrait photographer dies (1868-1952) documented tribes in North America. (Curtis, Edward S. and Cardozo, Christopher. Page 1334)
The 3-D film craze begins using stereography in motion pictures called the reflecting mirror stereoscope. (Zone, Ray. Vol. 13: Iss. 2, Article 11, Page 8)
Asahi established the single-lens reflex (SLR) camera later to develop The Asahiflex, first Japanese 35mm Single Lens Reflex camera later to be called Pentax, inspired by the Praktiflex. This camera has a cloth fabric drape, focal plane shutter with shutter speeds of 1/20 to 1/500 sec. as well as a bulb setting. (Cecchi, Danilo. Page 32)
Young Girl, West St. Paul, MN. Gelatin silver print. (Liebling, Jerome. Photo 01)
The first photograph retouched for reproduction was produced at the Research Laboratory of the Eastman Kodak Company in Harrow. A historian named Helmut Gernsheim completed one of the prints of the Kodak reproduction by combined negative and positive images from the original plate using watercolors giving it a very pointillistic effect. His attempt was to maintain the heliograph’s originality as close as he could. (Barns, Michael. Page B1)
Churchill became Prime Minister in the UK under Conservatives. (Blake, Robert. Page 15)
Hubert de Givenchy debuts his first fashion collection in Paris and became famous for the white Bettina blouse which was named after the model. He made his collection from cheap fabrics because he could not afford high-end material, forty years later he is now known for his visionary work. (Bill Cunningham. Page 05)
Dorothea Lange, an American photographer, took photographs of people in less fortunate circumstances and distressed families. She is known for her famous photograph depicting an anxious mother of three children titled, “Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California” (Washington, DC, Lib. Congr.). (Gordon, Linda. Page 113)
Spring in New York. (Lange, Dorothea. Photo 02)
First Born, Berkeley. (Lange, Dorothea. Photo 03)
Fernand Léger, his studio, house at Gif-sur-Yvette. Gelatin silver print. American sculptor, painter, photographer, and author (Liberman, Alexander, Photo 04)
Eugene Smith was an American photojournalist. He was most famous for his photography coverage of the World War II. (Peacock, Scot.)
Spinner. Documentary photography. (Smith, W. Eugene. Photo 05)
Henri Cartier-Bresson is a famous photographer recognized of the 20th century. His most recognized work is The Decisive Moment. This term, created by him, was the title of his book Images a la Sauvette as well as his philosophy. The term The Decisive Moment implies there is only one correct frame; meaning one photograph or all photographs are decisive moments. Cartier-Bresson only took a single shot of any situation and that one frame was the decisive one. (Alberta. Page ES01)
The first issue of the non-profit magazine named, Aperture, was published in New York City founded by Minor White and many other great artists such as Dorothea Lange, Ansel Adams, and others. The magazine, Aperture’s goal was to create a serious journal of photography displaying the best artists and newest advancements it has made a reputation as a notorious and progressive platform. (Vogel, Carol. Page 2)
Hugh Heffner publishes the first issue of Playboy magazine. (Mondin, Frederick D., Dr. Page 14-15)
The first national TV guide was released. (Fuller-Seeley, Kathryn. Page 101)
A camera called the 1000F was released with the shortest shutter speed 1/1000s this replaced the 1600F. (Heymann, Stefan, and Q.G. De Bakker.)
The Family, Luzzara. Gelatin silver print. (Strand, Paul. Photo 06)
William Smith. (White, Minor. Photo 07)
The man with Mannequin in Crowd, Mexico City. (Lopez, Nacho. Photo 08)
Milkweed seeds on opaque glass lighted from behind. Gelatin silver print. (Callahan, Harry. Photo 09)
Elizabeth succeeded to the Throne as Queen Elizabeth II of Britain is crowned in Westminster Abbey on February 06, 1952. Queen Elizabeth II was crowned on June 2, 1953. (Australia, PNG Post-Courier. Page 2)
Inge Edler and Hellmuth Hertz sparked the creation of a new diagnostic technique called an ultrasonography, which recorded the 1st moving pictures of the heart. (Singh, Siddharth, and Abha Goyal. Page 01)
Eastman Kodak introduces high-speed Tri-X Black & White film, it is known for easiness to use and flexibility. (Kodak. 1954)
Leica M has introduced it was notoriously quiet so it appealed to street photographers and conflict photographers. It changed photography. (Bower, Brian. Page 18)
Cindy Sherman is born. She is a famous American photographer specializing in conceptual portraits. (Naef, Weston)
The Asahiflex II is introduced with the world's first instant return mirror system, solving the blackout mirror problem. (Imaging, Pentax. 1954)
Contour plowing; Walsh, Colo. Bourke-White, Margaret. (Photo 10, ARTstor Slide Gallery, University of Georgia Libraries)
Minigang, Amsterdam Ave. Klein, William. Gelatin silver prints. (Photo 11, ARTstor Slide Gallery, University of California, San Diego)
Dana Miller in The Pond. Steichen, Edward. (Photo 12, ARTstor Slide Gallery, University of California, San Diego)
Ampex introduces the first multitrack audio recorder derived from multi-track data recording technology. (Ampex)
Texas Instruments introduced the first mass-produced transistor radio named the Regency TR1. This created a whole new sense of freedom and changed the world because not the transistor radio was mobile and able to go anywhere instead of stationed within the household. (Ohio, Dayton Daily News)
Robert Frank receives the Guggenheim scholarship to photograph post-war America and Americans using a 35mm camera. Frank documented many common day events such as outings, parades, automobiles, signs, and dive bars. The resulting images are depressing and bleak. (The Ralph M. Parsons Foundation Photography Collection)
Edward Steichen an American photographer and famous curator, organizing the hugely influential “Family of Man” exhibit at New York's Museum of Modern Art (Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias)
Diana Vreeland, Dovima and Richard Avedon. Avedon, Richard. (Photo 13, ARTstor Slide Gallery, University of California, San Diego)
Marian Anderson. Avedon, Richard. Gelatin silver print. (Photo 14, ARTstor Slide Gallery, University of California, San Diego)
Maj. E. J. Steichen Chief, Photographic Section Air Service. Steichen, Edward. (Photo 15, ARTstor Slide Gallery, University of California, San Diego)
Talmudic Study, Williamsburg, Brooklyn, New York. Capa, Cornell. (Photo 16, ARTstor Slide Gallery, University of California, San Diego)
Hands on Tree Trunk. Bullock, Wynn. (Photo 17, ARTstor Slide Gallery, University of California, San Diego)
Kodak introduces color film. (Kodak. 1955)
Testing began using fiber optics to provide digital communication on a mass level. (Taylor, Mark C.)
George de Mestral invented Velcro (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
Curtis invents Hairspray (Regents of the University of Michigan)
Reynold Johnson with IBM invents and presents the Hard Drive; to this day all disk drives are based on Johnson’s basic system. (Program, Lemelson-MIT)
Ansel Adams creates an annual workshop and would collaboratively teach thousands of students over the years up until 1981. (Spaulding, Jonathan. Page 418)
Kodak introduced the Verichrome, a black & white Pan Film. (Kodak. 1956)
Cutouts. Harry Callahan. Gelatin silver print. (Photo 18, ARTstor Slide Gallery, George Eastman House Collection)
All Men Are Created Equal: Abraham Lincoln. Renau, Josep. Photomontage. (Photo 19, ARTstor Slide Gallery, University of California, San Diego)
Charity Ball, New York. Frank, Robert. (Photo 20, ARTstor Slide Gallery, University of California, San Diego)
Eleanor Chicago. Callahan, Harry M. (Photo 21, ARTstor Slide Gallery, University of California, San Diego)
Lennart Nilsson used an endoscope which was an instrument used to take photographs of inside the human cavity capturing photographs such as the human fetus in the womb. (Canon, Image)
The Russians launched the first man-made satellite into space orbiting the earth, named Sputnik. (Lannamann, N.)
Christian Dior a French fashion designer dies (1/21/1905 – 10/24/1957). (Britannica, Encyclopædia)
Russell Kirsch was the first to scan a digital image and produce the first image onto a computer at the United States National Bureau of Standards, NIST (Kirsch, Russell A. Page 195)
Audrey Hepburn. Blumenfeld, Erwin. (Photo 22, ARTstor Slide Gallery, University of California, San Diego)
Oh, This Wonderful War! Renau, Josep. Photomontage (Photo 23, ARTstor Slide Gallery, University of California, San Diego)
Calle Balderas con Ayuntamiento. Lopez, Nacho. (Photo 24, ARTstor Slide Gallery, University of California, San Diego)
Chicago. Callahan, Harry M. (Photo 25, ARTstor Slide Gallery, University of California, San Diego)
Kodak introduced the Brownie Starmatic Camera that eventually evolved into seven different models selling over 10million in 5years. (Kodak. 1957)
Asahi Pentax introduced. The design advances in the Asahi Pentax amazes society, it is first to utilize the pentaprism in the viewfinder introducing the concept of eye level viewing. (Imaging, Pentax. 1957)
Sci-Fi Film Project
Science Fiction Film Project Proposal
The Sci-fi Project Treatment
Do you ever feel like animals are spying on you? Is that bird in the window listening to your conversations? Does the cat snoop through your e-mail while you’re at work? Perhaps, in your calmer moments, you chalk it all up to paranoia and move on with your day, but I’ve got news for you: Your best friend canine is recording every move you make and conversation you speak.
With recent advances in technology, biologists and engineers across the country have successfully melded machine and animal using high-tech implants and genetics. They have surgically altered canines’ brains by attaching wires through the animal’s nervous system as well as a camera in place of an eye. These wires transmit information via a synthetic antenna submitted straight to the Government to analyze; this info is collected processed and stored. In a world where everyone is a “potential terrorist”, the Government strips us of our liberty, freedom, and privacy. The Government sees these as “luxuries” that they believe we can no longer afford. The Government instates the Canine Spying Program initiating immediate deployment of these dogs. Within 5 years these canines are now within every household with the pet owners oblivious to the biotechnology inside their beloved best friends.
These dogs occupy every household; this film will focus on the daily lives and routines of three different situations. Household #1 includes one single male introvert and is the owner of one biotech dog. Household #2 includes a long-term middle-aged professional couple owning two biotech dogs. Lastly, there is household #3 including a few college roommates with one biotech dog. These secret spy dogs are constantly in surveillance mode, eavesdropping on every private conversation. On one winter day Household #2 comes home to find their biotech dog malfunctioning, this causes them to take immediate action and accidentally exposing its technological components that are labeled the United States Central Intelligence Agency, subsection Government Domestic Canine Spying Program. This comes as a complete shock and feelings of vulnerability and questions consumed both of them. Immediately, they are eager to expose this discovery through the media spreading the privacy breach by the Government rapidly across America.
This quickly leads to riots, rebellion and an anti-Government uprising due to the intense invasion of privacy, a person's secret or private life. America becomes filled with feelings of impotence, anger, and anxiety that a hidden system of Government has information about him or her and that they have no control over the use of that collected information. The population is overflowing with rage as the concept of ‘Big Brother’ is far in the past, there is a bigger social issue at hand; the people of the nation have become a mindless process of routine coldness, uninformed errors, and dehumanization.
The Government tried to assure the people that if we just allow the Government to watch all of us and investigate all of us that somehow that will keep us all safe. To regain privacy within the home you must either except Government surveillance and the invasion of a person's secret and private life or is faced with the moral dilemma of euthanizing their pet, man’s best friend. This will leave the viewers to interpret a personal and moral outcome based on their own beliefs and values.
Is it possible that we will have to differentiate between genuine nature and Government influenced nature? Will the Government ever stop drafting species that can't escape their recruitment?
1. WORKING HYPOTHESIS and INTERPRETATION:
In life, I believe that the Government is monitoring our daily lives through our pet dogs. My film will show this in action by exploring the routine lives of the average dog owner.
The main conflict is between Government surveillance and the general public.
Ultimately I want the audience to feel anxiety and paranoia.
I want my audience to understand how easy it is due to modern technology for the Government to infiltrate our lives.
2. TOPICS and EXPOSITION:
- Government Spying
- People and their Pets
- Overly involved Government
- Violation of the right to privacy
The Background information that the audience would need to understand that I intend to present is the fact that there are already hundreds of ways that the Government watches, monitors, tracks, and controls us. You think things are bad now, just wait until you see what is coming. We live in an age when paranoia is running wild, technology continues to develop at an exponential rate and the Government is discovering massive amounts of new ways to spy on us, ultimately revoking our privacy and controlling our behavior.
3. ACTION SEQUENCES:
The sequence of action will be:
- Biotech (Biology + technology) engineered animals are developed and mainstreamed into society.
- Government monitoring and surveillance of all pet owners.
- Information is collected and processed through the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the National Security Agency (NSA), subsection.
- Government Domestic Canine Spying Program, part of the Defense Research Project Agency (DARPA).
- Biotech animal becomes exposed to the general public.
- An onset of riots and rebellion.
- To regain privacy within the home you must face a moral dilemma of giving up your privacy or destroying your pet that you have loved since day one.
The factual information that contributes to the film will be that the Government already takes part in our daily lives by assigning us a Social Security number at birth, monitor our cell phone calls, browser history, our physical locations using cell phone location services, and record our personal conversations.
The conflicts that arise will be when society realizes their pet has been spying all along by watching us every move through video and audio transmission.
The events and the sequence are structured around the invasion of privacy.
I expect the sequence to contribute to the film as a whole by exposing the violation of privacy rights in America.
4. MAIN CHARACTERS:
Main Character 1:
- The person’s identity – Government, antagonist.
- The character contributes the entire plot of the film.
- This character wants to get information about all individuals.
Main Character 2:
- The person’s identity – 3 households that own biotech dogs, protagonists.
- - Household #1: 1 single male introvert, owner of a biotech dog.
- - Household #2: Mid-aged professional couple, owner of two biotech dogs.
- - Household #3: College roommates, owner of a biotech dog.
- The invasion of privacy inflicted by the Government’s issue of biotech dogs.
- This character wants privacy after the discovery of biotech dogs.
The conflict in this film is an invasion of privacy by the Government.
We will see one force finally meet with the other (the ‘confrontation’) by having a biotech dog malfunction exposing its technological components labeled the United States Central Intelligence Agency, subsection, Government Canine Spying Program. This immediately was exposed through the media spreading the privacy breach by the Government.
The developments that would emerge from this confrontation are riots, rebellion, and anti-Government uprising.
6. AUDIENCE, ITS KNOWLEDGE, AND BIASES:
My intended audience is people interested in sci-fi, Government, technology, cyborg, spying, and animals.
I can expect the audience to know about the Government and known privacy right violations but not to know about biotech dogs.
Audience biases are either with the Government or against the Government, in some cases, they may both coexist.
My audience will see new truths because of the exposure of biotech dogs and breach of privacy by the United States Government.
Handling the progression of the time in the film will be stated in increments of 5 years.
The climactic sequence or crisis in this film will be when the general population gains knowledge of the biotech spy dogs.
The sequences that will build toward this ‘crisis’ is the ever growing personal information over the years of ownership of a biotech dog and the sequences of the falling action will be the to regain privacy within the home and you must face a moral dilemma of giving up your privacy or destroying your pet that you have loved since day one.
The resolution in this film is going to leave an everlasting final impact on the audience. This resolution is to either except Government surveillance and the invasion of a person's secret and private life or is faced with the moral dilemma of euthanizing their pet, man’s best friend. This will leave the viewers to interpret a personal and moral outcome based on their own beliefs and values.